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NEWS s Issue 3: Autumn 2012 s

From the editors

Accelerators in the European Strategy for Particle Physics meeting in Cracow

LHC - Higgs factory

New progress for the HiLumi baseline configuration

Circulating ideas about a new Higgs factory

A European strategy for accelerator-based neutrino physics

Achievements so far, as EuCARD enters its final year

Acc From the editors
by Kate Kahle (CERN), Agnes Szeberenyi (CERN), Celine Tanguy (CEA), Elena Wildner (CERN)
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This summer saw CERN announce to a worldwide audience the discovery of a Higgs-like boson, so this issue takes a look at the machine behind the discovery, the LHC, as well as future plans for a possible Higgs factory in the form of LEP3. Looking ahead too are European strategies for particle physics and accelerator-based neutrino physics. In addition, taking stock of the work so far, HiLumi LHC and EuCARD showcase their latest results.

In the headlines we’ve found stories of how Fermilab magnet developments and Italian advancements in magnet design and superconducting cables are helping the LHC high luminosity upgrade. We update you on the new Russian SuperB partner and the expansion of the UK Institute for Accelerator Science. We highlight the recent LHC proton-ion collision tests and the planned run extension into 2013. We also show how through outreach and proton therapy, accelerator science can make a difference to society.

We hope you enjoy this issue. Please contact us with any news or events that you would like added to future issues.

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Keywords: editors; introduction

 


At the London 2012 Paralympic Opening Ceremony this summer, the stadium was transformed into the Large Hadron Collider, with dancers carrying glowing red shapes to represent particles.
Image credit: Deck Accessory, Flickr


HiL EuC TIA Accelerators in the European Strategy for Particle Physics meeting in Cracow
by Frank Zimmermann (CERN), Roy Aleksan (CEA)
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From 10 to 12 September 2012 about 500 particle physicists and accelerator experts came together in Cracow, Poland, at an Open Symposium organized by the CERN Council to discuss the future European strategy. The Symposium’s Accelerator Science and Technology Session featured two excellent overview talks, on the energy frontier by Caterina Biscari (INFN-LNF) and on the intensity frontier by Mats Lindroos (ESS, on leave from CERN), which were complemented by a lively discussion.

The smooth operation of the LHC represents a huge success. The measures needed to raise the LHC collision energy up to 13-14 TeV by 2014 are at hand. Work is progressing on the technology for the LHC luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC) around 2020.  Increasing further the collision energy up to 26-33 TeV in the LHC tunnel requires substantial R&D for 16-20 T magnets (HE-LHC). A new 80-km tunnel could allow reaching energies of 80-100 TeV in proton-proton collisions.

Great progress in the SRF development for the ILC makes the construction of a high-energy lepton collider possible. CLIC with two-beam technology could be an alternative if 3 TeV is needed but R&D is still required. A lower-energy CLIC based on klystrons is also proposed. A number of new ideas for circular or gamma-gamma colliders, to study a “Higgs” particle at 125 GeV have also emerged. Much higher energy using leptons requires muon colliders, dielectric RF structures or plasma acceleration, with increasing complexity. High-power proton linacs, such as ESS and IFMIF, are under construction. Neutrino beams will be improved worldwide.

Many R&D topics are common for various accelerators, e.g. high-field magnets, RF structures & RF power sources, particle sources, alignment & stabilization. The conference brought together experts from these areas, highlighting the need to promote further collaborations with other fields of science.

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Keywords: Strategy, HL-LHC, HE-LHC, ILC, CLIC, ESS, IFMIF

 


Open Symposium on the European Strategy for Particle Physics (ESPP2012). Image credit: CERN


Acc
LHC - Higgs factory
by Mike Lamont (CERN)
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With a wry smile, Fabiola Gianotti showed the significance of the combined gamma-gamma and 4 lepton channels. "We observe in our data clear signs of a new particle, at the level of 5 sigma, in the mass region around 126 GeV." She gave heartfelt thanks to "the whole LHC exploitation team, including the operation, technical and infrastructure groups, for the outstanding performance of the machine, and to all the people who have contributed to the conception, design, construction and operation of this superb instrument".

It hasn't been easy. First beams were injected on the 10th September 2008. 9 days later - disaster, and it was November 2009 before beams were injected again following a Herculean effort to repair the seriously damaged sector 34. The causes of the incident were examined closely and caution dictated running at less than design energy: 3.5 TeV in 2010 and 2011; 4 TeV in 2012.

2010 was devoted to commissioning with beam with a very careful eye on the critical machine protection system. Towards the end of the year luminosity production really started. The total for 2010: around 50 inverse picobarns. The total by the 4th July 2012: around 10,000 inverse picobarns.

The machine has a limited number of parameters it can use to increase the collision rates seen by the experiments: number of bunches; number of protons per bunch; and the beam size at the interaction point. Over the last couple of years the LHC and its injectors have pushed hard on all options with considerable reward. Squeezing the beam sizes down to around 70 microns at the interaction points in ATLAS and CMS, coupled with small beam sizes and high bunch intensities from the injector chain have resulted in truly impressive collision rates. This performance, together with good machine availability, has allowed the LHC to deliver something like 800 trillion collisions to each of ATLAS and CMS. A very few of these have produced something that looks like a Higgs.

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Keywords: LHC, Performance, Higgs Boson, ATLAS, CMS

 


Joe Incandela, CMS Spokesperson presenting at Higgs search update on 4 July 2012. (click to enlarge)
Image credit: CERN

ATLAS Luminosity
Improvements in LHC performance are clear - this graph shows the luminosity delivered to the Atlas experiment in 2010 (green), 2011 (red) and 2012 (blue) for proton-proton collisions
Image credit: CERN


HiL New progress for the HiLumi baseline configuration
by Lucio Rossi (CERN)
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On 3 July, the High Luminosity LHC Parameter and Lay-out Committee (HL-PLC), formed as part of the HiLumi LHC Design Study, selected the maximum possible aperture for the quadrupoles of the inner triplets: 150 mm of coil free bore.

This decision was to get the maximum benefit of the new parameter space by using advanced superconductor Nb3Sn, based on the success of 4-m long, 90 mm aperture LARP quadrupole LQS01b and the 1-m long, 120 mm HQ. This choice was prepared by numerous meetings organized by the Magnets, Accelerator Physics and Performance and Energy deposition work package groups, with participation from CERN, University of Liverpool, US-LARP and KEK.

A recent review of US-LARP (LHC Accelerator Research Program) by DOE-Office of High Energy Physics praised the success of the LARP collaboration that was important in the HiLumi LHC project. In light of the 150 mm aperture size both the Accelerator Physics and the Magnet branches of LARP are readjusting their plans, preparing a construction project for 2015.

Additional progress included a recent meeting dedicated to the lay-out problem of the LHC-Point8 interaction region, especially in the LHCb upgrade era.

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Keywords: HiLumi LHC, HL-PLC, LARP

 


The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) consists of four US laboratories, BNL, FNAL, LBNL, and SLAC, who collaborate with CERN on the Large Hadron Collider.


EuC Circulating ideas about a new Higgs factory
Frank Zimmermann (CERN)
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Could the LHC tunnel one day house a high-luminosity electron-positron collider? This idea joined others at the LEP3 Day, held at CERN on 18 June 2012.

In 2011, early LHC indications suggested that the Higgs boson might be light, with a mass in the range 115-130 GeV. On Christmas’ Eve 2011 the first concrete proposal for a high-luminosity circular electron-positron collider was presented after Alain Blondel of Geneva University realised that an object like this could be studied in the LHC tunnel at about 240-GeV centre-of-mass energy.

This, along with the numerous encouraging reactions to this proposal, led the EuCARD Work Package 4 “AccNet” to organise a “LEP3 Day”, which was only a few weeks before the LHC’s ATLAS and CMS experiments announced the discovery of a Higgs-like boson with a mass of 125 GeV. About 40 motivated accelerator physicists from Switzerland, Japan, Russia, US and the UK participated in this EuCARD LEP3 Day, including Steve Myers, CERN Director of Accelerators and Technology, the KEK trustee Yasuhiro Okada, and members of CMS and ATLAS. A full report on the LEP3 Day is now available.

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Keywords: LEP3, EuCARD, LHC

 


Sketch of LEP3/TLEP double ring: a first ring accelerates electrons and positrons up to operating energy 45-120 (180) GeV and injects them at a few minutes interval into the low-emittance collider ring, which includes high luminosity interaction points (A. Blondel/U. Geneva)


EuN
EuC
A European strategy for accelerator-based neutrino physics
by Alain Blondel (UNIGE)
s s s s

In preparation for the CERN strategy meeting in Cracow NEu2012 as part of EuCARD project activities has delivered a coherent proposal for the next accelerator neutrino facility in Europe, as a result of two complementary design studies. The programme calls for the continuation of neutrino beams at CERN after the CNGS, and for a high priority support from CERN and the member states to the experiments and R&D programme.

Since the 2006 European Strategy for Particle Physics (ESPP), the experimental situation has evolved; the next step is the quantitative evaluation of the measurement of the mass hierarchy and of the CP violation. Following the 2006 ESPP recommendations, two complementary design studies have been carried out by LAGUNA/LNBO and EUROnu. The role of EuCARD’s NEu2012 project activity has been to foster convergence between these different communities.

LAGUNA LBNO recommends a conventional neutrino beam CN2PY from CERN SPS towards the Pyhäsalmi mine in Finland situated at 2285 km, with a Liquid Argon magnetized iron hybrid detector. An expression of interest with large community support has been submitted, and aims at a full proposal by 2014.

EUROnu has compared a conventional super-beam from the CERN HP-SPL, a beta-beam implemented on the CERN site, and a Neutrino Factory. It concluded that a 10 GeV Neutrino Factory, aimed at a magnetized neutrino detector situated, also, at the same baseline of around 2200 km (±30%), would constitute the ultimate neutrino facility. It recommends that the next 5 years be devoted to the R&D, preparatory experiments and implementation study, in view of a proposal before the next ESPP update.

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Keywords: Strategy, ESPP, Neutrinos, EuCARD, EUROnu, NEu2012, CNGS, LAGUNA, HP-SPL

 


CERN to Pyhäsalmi baseline, 2300 km. Image credit: LARP


Preliminary layout of a 10 GeV Neutrino Factory on the CERN site, with neutrino beams pointing at Pyhäsalmi.


EuC Achievements so far, as EuCARD enters its final year
by Agnes Szeberenyi (CERN)
s s s s

The EuCARD project has just finished a successful 2nd period of 18 months, achieving most of its objectives and technical goals, and has started its 4th and final project year with more than 130 scientific papers published.

From the networking work packages, NEu2012 initiated a range of actions all aimed at creating a common roadmap to be proposed as the European accelerator neutrino programme to the relevant decision-making bodies. AccNet organized 8 successful workshops on various topics, such as crystal collimation, electron clouds, crab cavities and beam optics control. Within AccNet, a new network has also been established to bring together scientists from the plasma wakefield acceleration community. The highlights of transnational work packages included the HiRadMat (High Irradiation to Materials) facility at CERN becoming operational and within the ICTF facility at STFC, there is an improved resolution of TOF counters, new measurement of muon beam contamination and tests of the Electron-Muon Ranger detector.

The achievements of Joint Research Activities included the design of a dipole insert magnet as well as novel metal-diamond composites being identified as promising materials for collimation efficiency. Mechanical stabilisation to below a nanometre has now been obtained at CLIC. Furthermore the prototype crab cavities for both LHC and CLIC have been built and the LHC cavity has been fully characterized. The EMMA FFAG and instrumentation line are also now operational. Achievements also include a successful demonstration of a new method, based on X-ray measurements, for measuring the transverse emittance in laser-plasma accelerators. The full progress report is now publicly available.

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Keywords: EuCARD, progress, period, report

 


HiRadMat installation and comissioning is now complete. EuCARD Transnational Access is now taking place at this facility.
Image credit: HiRadMat, CERN


The FAIR cryo-catcher prototype seen from the back mounted in the cryostat It was tested with heavy ion beam of GSI’s SIS18.
Image credit: GSI


EVENTS
s
1-4 October

IBIC12 - International Beam Instrumentation Conference
Tsukuba, Japan

22-26 October
LCWS12 - The International Workshop on Future Linear Colliders
Arlington, USA

14-16 November
2nd Joint HiLumi LHC-LARP Annual Meeting
INFN Frascati, Italy

4-7 December
PCaPAC 2012 - International Workshop on Personal Computers and Particle Accelerator Controls Kolkata, India

24 April - 4 May 2013
CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Course on Superconductivity for Accelerators
Erice, Italy

13-17 May 2013
IPAC’13 - International Particle Accelerator Conference
Shanghai, China

10-14 June 2013
EuCARD - Final EuCARD meeting / EuCARD-2 kick-off meeting
CERN, Switzerland

IN THE HEADLINES    
s From CERN Bulletin:
September 2012
Tight turns

From interaction.org
September 2012
A new partner joins SuperB from Russia

From CERN Bulletin
September 2012
LHC Report: Tests of new LHC running modes

From Phys.Org:
August 2012
The John Adams Institute is expanding

From CERN Bulletin:
August 2012
Warmer amps for the LHC

From Phys.Org:
August 2012
Small but powerful

From Medical Physics Web:
August 2012
Will protons gradually replace photons?

From ILC Newsline:
August 2012
Physics that goes bang

From CERN Bulletin:
July 2012
LHC 2012 proton run extended by seven weeks

From Fermilab Today:
July 2012
A new generation of magnets for accelerators, MRIs
   
     
s EU FP7 s
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