CERN Accelerating science

  Introducing CRISP Accelerator Topic for Synergies in Physics
  by Hans Weise (DESY) with Agnes Szeberenyi (CERN)


Group photo taken at the 2nd CRISP Annual meeting, 18-20 March 2013, PSI, Switzerland. Image credit: CRISP

The EU funded CRISP project (The Cluster of Research Infrastructures for Synergies in Physics) started on 1st October 2011 and runs for 3 years. CRISP is a cooperative project, creating synergies and developing common solutions via knowledge and technology transfer from academia and industry for research infrastructures (RIs), initially bringing together 11 RIs in the field of Physics, Astronomy, and Analytical Facilities from the ESFRI roadmap across Europe. The work is organized around 4 main topics; accelerators, detectors, instruments and experiments, information technology and data management.

In the Accelerator Topic, the CRISP developments support the delivery of beams with superior intensity, the operation of accelerators with high reliability, particle beam characteristics which will allow opening new perspectives and opportunities for the next generation of nuclear and high energy physics projects and of experiments in photon, neutron and ion beam science.

A total of five work packages were defined within the topic to the benefit of several accelerator projects funded by CRISP. Improved ion sources will allow for better operation of Spiral 2 at GANIL. Bunch Shape Monitors are under development at GANIL as well as at GSI for FAIR. Superconducting accelerator technology will be further improved at DESY for the European XFEL, at CERN in collaboration with ESS for future projects including the European Spallation Source, and at GSI in order to address the challenges of fast cycled superconducting magnets for FAIR. Novel compact particle sources, electrons as well as protons, are also discussed and Radio Frequency Solid State Amplifiers using Cavity Combiners are under development at ESRF.

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  “TLEP” - Circular Higgs Factory and a Long-Term Perspective for High Energy Physics
  by Frank Zimmermann (CERN)

A long term strategy for particle physics. The succession of TLEP & VHE-LHC could provide more than 50 years of e+e-, pp, AA, ep/A physics at highest conceivable energies. The sequence LEP3 & HE-LHC represents a less ambitious, but lower-energy alternative.s. Image credit: TLEP.

Following the first EuCARD “LEP3 Day” on 18 June 2012 (see article ‘Circulating ideas about a new Higgs factory’ inAccelerating News issue 3), which revealed a great interest in a circular-collider “Higgs factory”, EuCARD Work Package 4,AccNet, has been organizing several workshops discussing the key ingredients, the physics potential, experimental detector concepts, and synergies with other projects of such a facility.

Emphasis has shifted from LEP3, a machine installed in the 27-km LHC tunnel originally proposed, to TLEP, an electron-positron collider in a new 80 or 100-km long ring tunnel. Advantages are manifold: TLEP construction would be fully decoupled from LHC/HL-LHC operation. TLEP could achieve up to 5 times higher luminosity than LEP3, promising a precision for Higgs coupling measurements much better than any other planned or proposed machine. Such precision is needed to discover physics beyond the standard model at energies above 1 TeV. In addition, TLEP could possibly provide the infrastructure (tunnel, cryogenics, injector-ring magnets, detectors) for a future 100-TeV proton-proton collider in the same tunnel – the “Very High Energy LHC” or “VHE-LHC” –, paving a path towards extremely high hadron collision energies, while also allowing for highest-energy electron-proton collisions.

Presently a TLEP conceptual design study is being set up aiming at delivering a design report by 2014/2015.

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  From the editors
  by Kate Kahle (CERN), Agnes Szeberenyi (CERN), Celine Tanguy (CEA), Elena Wildner (CERN)

At the London 2012 Paralympic Opening Ceremony this summer, the stadium was transformed into the Large Hadron Collider, with dancers carrying glowing red shapes to represent particles.
Image credit: Deck Accessory, Flickr

This summer saw CERN announce to a worldwide audience the discovery of a Higgs-like boson, so this issue takes a look at the machine behind the discovery, the LHC, as well as future plans for a possible Higgs factory in the form of LEP3. Looking ahead too are European strategies for particle physics and accelerator-based neutrino physics. In addition, taking stock of the work so far, HiLumi LHC and EuCARD showcase their latest results.

In the headlines we’ve found stories of how Fermilab magnet developments and Italian advancements in magnet design and superconducting cables are helping the LHC high luminosity upgrade. We update you on the new Russian SuperB partner and the expansion of the UK Institute for Accelerator Science. We highlight the recent LHC proton-ion collision tests and the planned run extension into 2013. We also show how through outreach and proton therapy, accelerator science can make a difference to society.

We hope you enjoy this issue. Please contact us with any news or events that you would like added to future issues.

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  LHC - Higgs factory
  by Mike Lamont (CERN)

Fig1: Joe Incandela, CMS Spokesperson presenting at Higgs search update on 4 July 2012. (click to enlarge) Image credit: CERN
Fig2: Improvements in LHC performance are clear - this graph shows the luminosity delivered to the Atlas experiment in 2010 (green), 2011 (red) and 2012 (blue) for proton-proton collisions. Image credit: CERN

With a wry smile, Fabiola Gianotti showed the significance of the combined gamma-gamma and 4 lepton channels. "We observe in our data clear signs of a new particle, at the level of 5 sigma, in the mass region around 126 GeV." She gave heartfelt thanks to "the whole LHC exploitation team, including the operation, technical and infrastructure groups, for the outstanding performance of the machine, and to all the people who have contributed to the conception, design, construction and operation of this superb instrument".

It hasn't been easy. First beams were injected on the 10th September 2008. 9 days later - disaster, and it was November 2009 before beams were injected again following a Herculean effort to repair the seriously damaged sector 34. The causes of the incident were examined closely and caution dictated running at less than design energy: 3.5 TeV in 2010 and 2011; 4 TeV in 2012.

2010 was devoted to commissioning with beam with a very careful eye on the critical machine protection system. Towards the end of the year luminosity production really started. The total for 2010: around 50 inverse picobarns. The total by the 4th July 2012: around 10,000 inverse picobarns.

The machine has a limited number of parameters it can use to increase the collision rates seen by the experiments: number of bunches; number of protons per bunch; and the beam size at the interaction point. Over the last couple of years the LHC and its injectors have pushed hard on all options with considerable reward. Squeezing the beam sizes down to around 70 microns at the interaction points in ATLAS and CMS, coupled with small beam sizes and high bunch intensities from the injector chain have resulted in truly impressive collision rates. This performance, together with good machine availability, has allowed the LHC to deliver something like 800 trillion collisions to each of ATLAS and CMS. A very few of these have produced something that looks like a Higgs.

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  From the editors
  by Kate Kahle (CERN), Celine Tanguy (CEA), Elena Wildner (CERN)

Accelerating News publicised in the June issue of the CERN Courier. Image credit: CERN Courier.

In this summer issue we look at how developments in collimator materials could have applications in aerospace and beyond, and how Polish researchers are harnessing accelerators for medical and industrial uses. We see how the LHC luminosity upgrade is linking with European industry and US researchers, and how the neutrino oscillation community is progressing. We find out the mid-term status of TIARA-PP and how it is mapping European accelerator education resources.

In the headlines we’ve found stories of ILC and CLIC, how particle physics could predict your car’s lifetime, how ICAN will look at laser acceleration and how SESAME is on track for commissioning. We see how accelerator research can benefit from blogging and can be of benefit to numerous applications.

We hope you enjoy this issue. Please contact us with any news or events that you would like added to future issues.