CERN Accelerating science

  First pre-series sextupole for the SESAME storage ring
  by Attilio Milanese (CERN)

First SESAME sextupole pre-series undergoing magnetic measurements in the ISR tunnel at CERN. The electric and hydraulic connections are in test configuration.  Image credit: CERN

In November 2013, CERN has completed the first assembly of a pre-series sextupole for the SESAME storage ring, within the CESSAMag European project. This is indeed the first magnet for the new synchrotron light source in construction in Jordan.

The magnetic design of the sextupole has been finalized at CERN on the basis of the initial proposal of SESAME. The compact magnet is actually multi-purpose, incorporating – on top of the main sextupolar field – three correctors, namely the horizontal / vertical dipole and a skew quadrupole. Since the aperture (75 mm diameter) is comparable to the length (iron length 100 mm), the optimization of the pole tip geometry was carried out directly in 3D. A peculiar feature from the magnetic viewpoint is the unconventional choice of avoiding any end pole chamfering, while still minimizing the first allowed harmonic. This was obtained by introducing a careful bias in the 2D design, that cancels out in 3D due to edge effects. This simplifies the manufacture without compromising on the field quality. Indeed a magnetic measurement on the pre-series confirmed the simulations, with a first allowed harmonics of 0.4∙10-4 at a reference radius of 24 mm.

This pre-series sextupole validates the design and opens the way for the 64 units needed for the SESAME storage ring. Contracts for the main components are on-going in Europe, whereas for the final assembly and testing options in Cyprus and Pakistan are currently being finalized.


  CERN prepares for Future Circular Collider Study
  by Michael Benedikt and Frank Zimmermann (CERN)

Fig, left: Participants of the Future Circular Collider kick-off Meeting, University of Geneva, Switzerland Image credit: CERN.
Fig2, right: Sketch of a future 80 to 100-km long tunnel in the Geneva area, allowing for a 100-TeV energy-frontier proton collider and also, as possible intermediate step, a high-luminosity e+e- Higgs factory. Image credit: CERN.

More than 350 world experts in accelerators and particle physics, including several laboratory directors, came together at the University of Geneva for 4 days from 12 to 15 February 2014, to launch a future circular collider (FCC) study, based on a new 80 to 100-km circular tunnel.

The FCC study scope comprises a frontier 100-TeV proton (and heavy-ion) collider [formerly called VHE-LHC], a high-luminosity e+e- (H, Z, W, and ttbar) factory as potential intermediate step [formerly called TLEP], and also a hadron-lepton collider option [formerly called VLHeC]. The goal of the study is to deliver a Conceptual Design Report (CDR) together with a cost review at the time of the next European Strategy Update (2018).

The goals of the kick-off meeting were to introduce the FCC study, to discuss study scope and organization, as well to prepare and to establish global collaborations.

After two days of plenary sessions, which surveyed the physics case, scope, plan, international situation and design starting points of the FCC, seven parallel sessions provided space for feedback, numerous additional presentations and lively international discussions. Worldwide collaboration in all areas – physics, experiments and accelerators – was found to be essential to reach the level for a CDR by 2018. Key R&D areas for the FCC, such as superconducting high-field magnets and Superconducting Radio-Frequency systems (SRF), are of general interest and relevant for many other applications. Significant R&D investments in these areas have been made over the past decade(s) and are still in progress, for example, in the framework of the LHC and High-Luminosity LHC.

Institutes around the world are now invited to join the global FCC effort and to submit non-committing written “expressions of interest” with regard to specific contributions by the end of May 2014.

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  Latest developments in medical physics research
  by Livia Lapadatescu (CERN)

ICTR-PHE 2014 took place in the International Conference Centre in Geneva (CICG).
Image credit: ICTR-PHE 2014.

Researchers from around the world gathered in Geneva to discuss the latest developments in cancer diagnosis and treatment during ICTR-PHE 2014 (International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health in Europe), held between 10 and 14 February.

The 5-day conference covered a variety of topics from radiobiology, nuclear medicine, detectors and imaging, to host and tumour immunity, radio-therapeutic control of tumours, and clinical trials in hadron therapy. The involvement of CERN in medical physics research was highlighted in the talk by Steve Myers, recently appointed Head of CERN’s Medical Application Programme, and in the public lecture by Ugo Amaldi: Physics is beautiful and useful.

The development of compact and cost-effective accelerators for medical applications, the production of isotopes for research, and the establishment of BioLEIR at CERN were also addressed during the conference. Converting LEIR (The Low Energy Ion Ring) into a biomedical experimental facility will help investigate the effect of different ions on cancer cells, test innovative particle detectors and perform accurate nuclear fragmentation studies. The ISOLDE facility will provide beams to produce radioisotopes for medical applications, in the framework of the CERN MEDICIS project.

The need of uniting different disciplines: physics, chemistry, biology, medicine and even computer science (which could help in analyzing large databases) to develop better treatment and diagnosis for cancer was highlighted throughout the conference. Rendez-vous in 2016 for the next edition of ICTR-PHE.

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  Synergies for testing Superconducting RF cavities
  by Detlef Reschke (DESY)

Fig 1, left: XFEL series cavity during incoming inspection at DESY. Image credit: DESY
Fig2, right: Vertical test inserts equipped with XFEL superconducting accelerator series cavities. Image credit: DESY.

Within the 36 month period of the CRISP project the main objective of WP4  is to upgrade and harmonize the SRF Accelerator Structures for ESS, ILC, LHC upgrade and the European XFEL. The activity supports an optimised surface treatment, the application of advanced test and preparation infrastructure as well as state-of-the-art diagnostics tools.

At CERN the SRF cavity test infrastructure is under upgrade to allow 2 Kelvin operation needed for the characterisation of a first cryomodule for the ESS and the CERN-SPL. The upgrade includes a new cryogenic transfer line between the cryoplant and RF test stand area with two horizontal cryomodule test places and four vertical RF test cryostats. Two of the vertical cryostats have been modified for 2K operation, which is necessary for the testing of the SPL cavities.

The industrial production of the series accelerator cavities for the European XFEL started successfully beginning of 2013. Until end October 2013, 164 series accelerator and ILC-HiGrade cavities for the European XFEL have been delivered to DESY. For many of the cavities that didn’t pass the tests an additional treatment applying a chemical surface removal (“Buffered Chemical Polishing BCP”) is under consideration. The development of advanced diagnostics like high resolution optical inspection and the experience of industrial cavity production and surface treatment will be extremely beneficial for any other European large scale SRF project such as ESS as well as for the preparation of the ILC.


  Accelerators for Society is live now
  by Daniel Potter (STFC) and Celine Tanguy (CEA)

                        Click here to visit Image credit: TIARA.

Visit the recently launched website to learn more on applications of particle accelerators.

First developed almost a century ago for fundamental physics research, particle accelerators now have a very large number of applications, from the well-known applications such as cancer treatment and the production of semiconductors for the electronics industry, to the lesser-known applications such as improving the taste of chocolate and the treatment of water supplies.

The website has been developed as part of the TIARA preparatory phase and outlines many applications of particle accelerators in areas such as Research and Development, Health, Medicine, Industry, Energy, Environment and beyond, showing just how much society benefits from particle accelerators.


  From the editors
  by Mathilde Chaudron (CERN), Agnes Szeberenyi (CERN), Celine Tanguy (CEA)

Order an EuCARD booklet: 18 topics on Accelerator Science and Technology have been addressed in total. Click here to see all the topics and request a copy (free of charge). Image credit: EuCARD.

In this summer issue we are approaching the end of EuCARD and have welcomed the beginning of EuCARD-2. We are pleased to report on the recent fruitful events including the workshop on "Visions for the future of particle accelerators" and the TIARA workshop on RF power generation.

We find out about the improvements for FAIR and SPIRAL2 within the CRISP project, the successful 11 Tesla project and the latest achievements within EuCARD. The approval of the update of the European Strategy for Particle Physics by the CERN council is also highlighted.

In the headlines, we have found stories about cherry pie colliders, ILC technical report published lately and further developments towards industrial and medical applications of accelerators. Amongst the events, we also highlight the upcoming ICAN Symposium.

Your feedback is important for us. Please take 2 minutes to fill the short questionnaire on Accelerating News available here.

We hope you enjoy this issue. Please contact us with any news or events that you would like added to future issues.

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  Improved ion sources and beam diagnostics for FAIR and SPIRAL2
  by Peter Forck (GSI) and Christophe Peaucelle (IN2P3) with Agnes Szeberenyi (CERN)

Fig 1, left: An image of the bunch shape as recorded at the GSI LINAC with a beam of U28+ ions at 11.4 MeV/u. The plot shows the 70 mm MCP original image created by residual gas electrons on top and the projection to the horizontal axis results in the bunch shape below. Image credit: GSI.
Fig 2, right: Low-energy beam transport line of SPIRAL-2 with PHOENIX V2 ion source during commissioning. Image credit: LPSC/IN2P3

Under the CRISP project framework, WP3 aims at developing improved ion sources and beam diagnostics  for SPIRAL2 atGANIL and FAIR Proton LINAC at GSI. Modern high power proton and ion LINACs aim for an effective acceleration and low RF-power consumption. This is realized by a high electric field gradient and non-standard beam dynamics settings.

SPIRAL2 is based on the detection of X-rays as emitted from a thin tungsten wire inserted in the beam path. These X-rays are detected by a fast Multi-Channel Plate mounted outside of the beam path. Conclusive tests at Institute de Physique Nucleaire in Orsay and GANIL lead to the realization of a compact device. The FAIR Proton LINACӳ monitor is based on the detection of secondary electrons as liberated from the residual gas molecules by beam impact. By the electric field within an RF-deflector the electrons are bent to transform the time information to a difference in space.

FAIR and SPIRAL2 facilities need both a high performance electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) to create the high intensity beams. PHOENIX V2, a 18 GHz room temperature ECRIS developed by LPSC Grenoble will be the starting heavy ion source on SPIRAL 2. An evolution to PHOENIX V3 is being studied in order to increase the beam intensity by a factor of 2. The first beam with PHOENIX V3 is scheduled for November 2013.


  Visions for the future of particle accelerators
  by Agnes Szeberenyi (CERN)

Poster of  EuCARD'13 event at CERN was combined with a workshop on the Visions for the Future of Particle Accelerators. Image credit: EuCARD

The recently held EuCARD'13 event at CERN was combined with a workshop on the Visions for the Future of Particle Accelerators, which targeted to discuss the challenges for the next 50 years of research and development in accelerator physics.

The ambitions of accelerator-based sciences and applications far exceed the present accelerator possibilities. The natural time constant of accelerator technologies or projects is in the 20 to 30 years. Hence prospective studies require a vision over a 50 year period, to become liberated from today project considerations.

This 2-day workshop aimed at identifying the ultimate limits of concepts and technologies presently used or contemplated and at investigating possible future avenues requiring generic accelerator R&D. Two round tables on the role of EC projects and on the role of industry complemented the scientific perspectives.

Jean-Pierre Koutchouk, Maurizio Vretenar and Frank Zimmermann as the workshop organizers will report on the outcomes of the event in the next, Autumn Issue. 

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  The update of EU Strategy for particle physics adopted by CERN Council
  by Celine Tanguy (CEA)

On the occasion of the update of the European strategy for Particle Physics, abrochure demonstrating the social benefits of European research in particle physics was released. Image credit: CERN.

Six years after its first definition in 2006, the European strategy for particle physics was updated so as to take into account the progress made so far and the evolution of theglobal particle physics landscape.

The Strategy Statement paper, produced by the European Strategy Group (ESG) assisted by an ad-hoc Preparatory Group, was approved on 30 May 2013 by the CERN Council in a special meeting hosted by the European Commission in Brussels. This document is completed by the Deliberation Paper describing the rationale behind the Strategy Statements and some suggestions on organisational matters.

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  “TLEP” - Circular Higgs Factory and a Long-Term Perspective for High Energy Physics
  by Frank Zimmermann (CERN)

A long term strategy for particle physics. The succession of TLEP & VHE-LHC could provide more than 50 years of e+e-, pp, AA, ep/A physics at highest conceivable energies. The sequence LEP3 & HE-LHC represents a less ambitious, but lower-energy alternative.s. Image credit: TLEP.

Following the first EuCARD “LEP3 Day” on 18 June 2012 (see article ‘Circulating ideas about a new Higgs factory’ inAccelerating News issue 3), which revealed a great interest in a circular-collider “Higgs factory”, EuCARD Work Package 4,AccNet, has been organizing several workshops discussing the key ingredients, the physics potential, experimental detector concepts, and synergies with other projects of such a facility.

Emphasis has shifted from LEP3, a machine installed in the 27-km LHC tunnel originally proposed, to TLEP, an electron-positron collider in a new 80 or 100-km long ring tunnel. Advantages are manifold: TLEP construction would be fully decoupled from LHC/HL-LHC operation. TLEP could achieve up to 5 times higher luminosity than LEP3, promising a precision for Higgs coupling measurements much better than any other planned or proposed machine. Such precision is needed to discover physics beyond the standard model at energies above 1 TeV. In addition, TLEP could possibly provide the infrastructure (tunnel, cryogenics, injector-ring magnets, detectors) for a future 100-TeV proton-proton collider in the same tunnel – the “Very High Energy LHC” or “VHE-LHC” –, paving a path towards extremely high hadron collision energies, while also allowing for highest-energy electron-proton collisions.

Presently a TLEP conceptual design study is being set up aiming at delivering a design report by 2014/2015.